A medium size crude oil tanker of approximately 80,000 to 120,000 deadweight tons. Because of their size, Aframaxes are able to operate on many different routes, including from Latin America and the North Sea to the United States. They are also used in lightering (transferring cargo from larger tankers, typically VLCCs, to smaller tankers for discharge in ports from which the larger tankers are restricted). Modern Aframaxes can generally transport from 500,000 to 800,000 barrels of crude oil.
Articulated Tug Barge (ATB)
ATB is the acronym for Articulated Tug Barge, which is a tug-barge combination system capable of operation on the high seas, coastwise and further inland. It combines a normal barge, with a bow resembling that of a ship, but having a deep indent at the stern to accommodate the bow of a tug. The fit is such that the resulting combination behaves almost like a single vessel at sea as well as while maneuvering.
A Charter under which a customer pays a fixed daily or monthly rate for a fixed period of time for use of the vessel. The customer pays all voyage and vessel expenses. Bareboat charters are usually long term.
The Condition Assessment Program of ABS Consulting, a subsidiary of the American Bureau of Shipping, which evaluates a vessel's operation, machinery, maintenance and structure using the ABS Safe Hull Criteria. A CAP 1 rating indicates that a vessel meets the standards of a newly built vessel.
Capesize Bulk Carrier
A large Dry Bulk Carrier (any vessel used to carry non-liquid bulk commodities) with a carrying capacity of more than 80,000 deadweight tons that mainly transports iron ore and coal.
Contract entered into with a customer for the use of the vessel for a specific voyage at a specific rate per unit of cargo ("Voyage Charter"), or for a specific period of time at a specific rate per unit (day or month) of time ("Time Charter").
Organizations that establish and administer standards for the design, construction and operational maintenance of vessels. As a practical matter, vessels cannot trade unless they meet these standards.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
CNG is a gas that has been compressed for transportation in pressurized containers and can be transported on ships, barges or trucks. In many parts of the world, gas fields that cannot be readily connected by pipeline or are not large enough to support the cost of developoing LNG facilites are excellent candidates for CNG development.
Commercial Management or Commercially Managed
The management of the employment, or chartering, of a vessel and associated functions, including seeking and negotiating employment for vessels, billing and collecting revenues, issuing voyage instructions, purchasing fuel, and appointing port agents.
A commercial pool is a group of similar size and quality vessels with different shipowners that are placed under one administrator or manager.Pools offer participants opportunities for scheduling and other operating efficiencies such as multi-legged charters and Contracts of Affreightment and other operating efficiencies
Condition Assessment Scheme
An inspection program designed to check and report on the vessel’s physical condition and on its past performance based on survey and IMO’s International Safety Management audit reports and port state performance records.
Contract of Affreightment or COA
COA is the abbreviation for Contract of Affreightment, which is an agreement providing for the transportation of a specific quantity of cargo over a specific time period but without designating specific vessels or voyage schedules, thereby allowing flexibility in scheduling. COAs can either have a fixed rate or a market-related rate. An example would be two shipments of 70,000 tons per month for the next two years at the prevailing spot rate at the time of each loading.
Consecutive Voyage Charters - CVC
CVC is used when a customer contracts for a particular vessel for a certain period of time to transport cargo between specified points for a rate that is determined based on the volume of cargo delivered. The Company bears the risk of delays under CVC arrangements.
Oil in its natural state that has not been refined or altered.
Cubic Meters or Cbm
Cbm is the abbreviation for cubic meters, the industry standard for measuring the carrying capacity of a LNG Carrier.
Deadweight tons or Dwt
Dwt is the abbreviation for deadweight tons, representing principally the cargo carrying capacity of a vessel, but including the weight of consumables such as fuel, lube oil, drinking water and stores.
Additional revenue paid to the shipowner on its Voyage Charters for delays experienced in loading and/or unloading cargo, which are not deemed to be the responsibility of the shipowner, calculated in accordance with specific Charter terms.
Hull construction design in which a vessel has an inner and an outer side and bottom separated by void space, usually two meters in width.
An out-of-service period during which planned repairs and maintenance are carried out, including all underwater maintenance such as external hull painting. During the drydocking, certain mandatory Classification Society inspections are carried out and relevant certifications issued. Normally, as the age of a vessel increases, the cost of drydocking increases.
FSO/FPSO (Floating Production Storage Offloading Unit)
Ship used as a substitute for a conventional oil platform at oil fields that are either too deep or to small to justify the use of a conventional oil platform. An FPSO ship has oil (or gas) processing capabilities.
Handysize Product Carrier
A small size Product Carrier of approximately 30,000 to 50,000 deadweight tons. This type of vessel generally operates on shorter routes (short haul).
IMO is the abbreviation for International Maritime Organization, an agency of the United Nations, which is the body that is responsible for the administration of internationally developed maritime safety and pollution treaties, including MARPOL 73/78.
International Flag Vessel
A vessel that is registered under a flag other than that of the U.S.
U.S. law that applies to port-to-port shipments within the continental U.S. and between the continental U.S. and Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Guam, and restricts such shipments to U.S. Flag Vessels that are built in the U.S. and that are owned by a U.S. company that is more than 75% owned and controlled by U.S. citizens.
The offshore, ship-to-ship transfer of crude oil and petroleum products from larger vessels such as VLCCs or Suezmaxes to smaller vessels known as service vessels, which are capable of entering shallow-draft ports. Lightering enables larger vessels to vary their cargo deliveries by size, location and date.
LNG is the abbreviation for Liquified Natural Gas. A vessel designed to carry liquefied natural gas, that is, natural gas cooled to 163 degrees centigrade, turning it into a liquid and reducing its volume to 1/600 of its volume in gaseous form.
LR1 (Long Range Product Carrier)
A product tanker with the maximum dimensions for passing through the Panama Canal, of approximately 50,000 dwt to 80,000 dwt, with internally coated tanks to faciliate extensive cleaning.
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships by accident and by routine operations.
MR (Medium Range Product Carrier)
A product carrier in the 40,000 dwt to 52,000 dwt size range with internally coated tanks to prevent corrosion and facilitate cleaning when switching between cargoes.
OPA 90 is the abbreviation for the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990.
A medium size Product Carrier of approximately 50,000 to 80,000 deadweight tons that generally operates on longer routes.
General term that applies to any tanker that is used to transport refined oil products, such as gasoline, jet fuel or heating oil.
Pure Car Carrier
A single-purpose vessel with many decks, designed to carry
automobiles, which are driven on and off using ramps.
The disposal of vessels by demolition for scrap metal.
An extensive inspection of a vessel by classification society surveyors that must be completed within five years.Special Surveys require a vessel to be drydocked.
A large crude oil tanker of approximately 120,000 to 200,000 deadweight tons. Modern Suezmaxes can generally transport about one million barrels of crude oil.
The management of the operation of a vessel, including
physically maintaining the vessels, maintaining necessary certifications, and supplying necessary stores, spares, and lubricating oils. Responsibilities also generally include selecting, engaging and training crew, and arranging necessary insurance coverage.
A Charter under which a customer pays a fixed daily or monthly rate for a fixed period of time for use of the vessel. Subject to any restrictions in the Charter, the customer decides the type and quantity of cargo to be carried and the ports of loading and unloading. The customer pays all voyage expenses such as fuel, canal tolls, and port charges. The shipowner pays all vessel expenses such as the Technical Management expenses.
Time Charter Equivalent or TCE
TCE is the abbreviation for Time Charter Equivalent. TCE revenues, which is voyage revenues less voyage expenses, serves as an industry standard for measuring and managing fleet revenue and comparing results between geographical regions and among competitors.
The calculation of the average distance of each trading route multiplied by the volumes moving on that route. A greater increase in long haul movements compared to short haul movements, the higher increase in ton-mile demand.
U.S. Flag Vessel
A U.S. Flag vessel must be crewed by U.S. sailors, and owned and operated by a U.S. company.
A large crude oil tanker of more than 350,000 deadweight tons. Modern ULCCs can transport three million barrels of crude oil and are mainly used on the same long haul routes as VLCCs.
VLCC is the abbreviation for Very Large Crude Carrier, a large crude oil tanker of approximately 200,000 to 320,000 deadweight tons. Modern VLCCs can generally transport two million barrels or more of crude oil. These vessels are mainly used on the longest (long haul) routes from the Arabian Gulf to North America, Europe, and Asia, and from West Africa to the U.S. and Far Eastern destinations.
A Charter under which a customer pays a transportation charge for the movement of a specific cargo between two or more specified ports. The shipowner pays all voyage expenses, and all vessel expenses, unless the vessel to which the Charter relates has been time chartered in. The customer is liable for Demurrage, if incurred.
Includes fuel, port charges, canal tolls, cargo handling operations and brokerage commissions paid by the Company under Voyage Charters. These expenses are subtracted from shipping revenues to calculate time charter equivalent revenue for voyage charters.
A large crude oil tanker of more than 350,000 deadweight tons. Modern V Pluses can transport three million barrels of crude oil and are mainly used on the same long haul routes as VLCCs.
Industry name for the Worldwide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale published annually by the Worldscale Association as a rate reference for shipping companies, brokers, and their customers engaged in the bulk shipping of oil in the international markets. Worldscale is a list of calculated rates for specific voyage itineraries for a standard vessel, as defined, using defined voyage cost assumptions such as vessel speed, fuel consumption, and port costs. Actual market rates for voyage charters are usually quoted in terms of a percentage of Worldscale.